Pediatric & AYA Melanoma

Diagnosis (Pediatric)

How is Pediatric Melanoma Diagnosed?

Pediatric melanomas are often delayed and/or misdiagnosed. One reason for this is because most doctors don’t expect it. In addition, some types of pediatric melanoma present itself in atypical ways when compared to melanoma in adults. Melanomas in children are often misdiagnosed as pyogenic granulomas, atypical melanocytic neoplasms, warts or as spitz nevi.

Most melanomas are diagnosed with a biopsy. A pathologist or dermatopathologist will examine the biopsy under the microscope. If it comes back as a melanoma, surgeons may perform another surgery to ensure there are clear margins – the term used for the complete removal of the lesion. Depending on the diagnosis, your doctor may recommend a sentinel lymph node mapping, and depending on those results, a lymph node resection may be performed. This will help the doctors know if the melanoma has spread beyond the primary tumor. All of this information will be included in pathology report. The pathology report will help you understand your child’s stage of diagnosis, as well as help guide your treatment options.


Learn more about melanoma and how it is staged.

What does pediatric melanoma look like?

Your child’s skin should be evaluated by a professional familiar with pediatric melanoma if you see any area with one of the following features:

  • A bump that itches and bleeds
  • A spot that looks like an unusual wart – sometimes non-pigmented or with a pinkish color
  • An amelanotic lesion – a lump on the skin that isn’t dark or black (like many adult melanomas)
  • A mole that becomes nodular – very bumpy and sticking out far from the rest of the skin
  • A lesion that presents as a nodule, or lump, especially one that has been rapidly enlarging
  • Moles that look strange or large – especially a mole that looks DIFFERENT from your child’s other moles or has more than one color

Although some research suggests that the ABCDEs of melanoma should be revised when using them for diagnosing melanoma in children, it is important to remember that in most cases, the E, for evolution or change, is the most important factor to consider.




What if I spot something suspicious?

Screening for melanoma starts at home. Parents should be aware of all moles that their children have so that they will notice any changes or new moles.

A dermatologist, preferably one who has a lot of experience in melanoma, should examine your child’s skin immediately. Alternatively, you may wish to have your child examined at a pediatric pigmented lesions clinic or by a pediatric oncologist experienced in pediatric melanoma. It is important that melanoma is detected as early as possible to ensure the best outcome.

Check out our Kid’s Guide to Self-Screening!